Modern persuasion is still persuasion, or manipulation of some might refer to.
“Persuasion is a process that aims to utilize (true or false) information to change people’s attitudes in relation to something, usually as a precursor to behavioural change. Its use is prevalent in democratic societies, which do not, in principle, permit censorship of information or the use of force to enact power. The transition of information to the internet, particularly with the rise of social media, together with the capacity to capture, store and process big data, and advances in machine learning, have transformed the way modern persuasion is conducted. This has led to new opportunities for persuaders, but also to well-documented instances of abuse: fake news, Cambridge Analytica, foreign interference in elections, etc. We investigate large-scale technology-based persuasion, with the help of three case studies derived from secondary sources, in order to identify and describe the underlying technology architecture and propose issues for future research, including a number of ethical concerns.”
Jeremy Rose & Oskar MacGregor ~ Journal of Information Architecture 6.1 ★
In any structure, you must search for the power of silence, whitespace and emptiness.
“The article frames music through the lens of information architecture in order to infer a few considerations on information architecture through the lens of music, and is a thoroughly revised and expanded version of the author’s opening keynote at World Information Architecture Day in Verona, Italy, February 18 2017.”
Federico Badaloni a.k.a. /federico-badaloni | @fedebadaloni ~ Journal of Information Architecture 6.1 ★
Good old taxo’s.
“Taxonomies may be thought of as hierarchies of categories to group and organize information to be found when browsing, or as a structured set of terms used to tag content so that it can be retrieved efficiently and accurately. Sometimes the same taxonomy may serve both purposes, and sometimes two different taxonomies are used, one for each purpose, for the same content or site. Taxonomies are not new, in fact there has been a lot written about them, including an informative series of six articles here in Boxes and Arrows by Grace Lau in 2015. An area that still needs to be better understood is exactly how taxonomies should be designed and implemented to be most effective.”
Heather Hedden ~ Boxes and Arrows ★
Information and information architecture: Alive and kicking.
“Information architecture is the process of categorizing and organizing information to create structure and meaning. To give this context, this article explores not only the basics of information architecture, but also the broader view of the information age, how we use information and how it impacts our world and our lives. Understanding the bigger picture enables us to get a much clearer perception of the value that good information architecture delivers to help our information-overloaded lives.”
Carrie Webster a.k.a. /carrie-webster ~ Smashing Magazine ★
It’s so sad we still have to explain the obvious.
“A well-designed, user-friendly information architecture ensures that users spend less time and effort searching for information and are successful in finding what they need.”
Anastasia Stefanuk a.k.a. /anastasiia-stefanuk ~ UX matters ★
Taxos for business as well.
“While I haven’t shared all the strategic reasoning behind the website taxonomy, I hope this post explains the approach well enough to solicit feedback. Is it perfect? I don’t know! We will come to know only after the website is launched, feedback is collected from the target audience, and website traffic is tracked over a period of time. That’s when I am going to update this post.”
The Verditer ★
Academic thinking on IA, IoT and ecosystems. We need more of this.
“This paper formalizes an approach to the Internet of Things as a socio-technical system of systems and a part of the infosphere. It introduces a principle-based, human-centered approach to designing Internet of Things artifacts as elements of contextual cross-channel ecosystems. It connects the Internet of Things to the conceptualization of cross-channel ecosystems from current information architecture theory and practice, positing that the Internet of Things is both a formal, objective superset of any given ecosystem and a contextual, subjective subset of specifically instantiated ecosystems. The paper argues for the necessity of a transdisciplinary theoretical framework to promote a human-centered generative understanding of the Internet of Things phenomena and their consequences, in accordance with the Metamodel Methodology (M3). It proposes a phenomenology-grounded information architecture model detailing a set of 16 principles and secondary heuristics grouped according to an architectural perspective, which identifies guidelines that support the design of Internet of Things artifacts considering their objective characteristics; a human perspective, which identifies guidelines that support the design of Internet of Things artifacts considering subject/object relationships and the production of meaning; and a systemic perspective, which identifies guidelines that support the design of Internet of Things artifacts as relational parts of information-based ecosystems. These principles and guidelines are meant to provide the foundations for a practice-based approach to designing the Internet of Things–enabled information ecosystems.”
Flávia Lacerda, Mamede Lima-Marques and Andrea Resmini ★
Making history at the summit while looking at the works of some giants.
“If as information architects we want to do human-centered design, and to be working in terms of health and wellbeing in the overall ecosystem as a consequence of our actions, even those actions that seem isolated in small sub-regions of the ecosystem, then our methods, and ways of talking with people who don’t do what we do, and the entry points into and interactions with our profession, need to go even wider than ordinary.”
Dan Klyn a.k.a. /danklyn | @danklyn ★
Finally some time for real in-depth research on the IA roots.
“In a search for classic works on information architecture, Joyce’s Ulysses and Richard Saul Wurman’s The City, Form and Intent are each compared internally across different versions and considered in terms of content, context and user. Each author modified readers’ experiences through changes in the content and physical form of their works. Wurman’s 1963 work, a loose-leaf collection reflecting architecture through clay models of cities, was redone in 1974 with the same content but different physical presentation. Joyce’s Ulysses was marked by variations across versions, with omissions, additions and typographic errors carried inconsistently through editions, leaving the author’s intended meaning ambiguous. The context of Wurman’s work was the very early stage in the author’s career. The context of production of Ulysses involved composition, editing, publishing, correction and republishing across multiple channels, making consideration of the totality of the editions key to understanding the information architecture of the work. Users of Wurman’s original print work exalted it, while users of a 2014 spin-off web project see it from a different perspective. Similarly, the user experience for Ulysses varies widely, depending largely on which edition is read. The analysis and internal comparison of the two works highlight the importance of both content knowledge and technical skill throughout any information architecture project. Whether they will serve as masterworks for the field remains an open question.”
Dan Klyn a.k.a. /danklyn | @danklyn ~ ASIS&T Bulletin June/July 2016 ★
Many synonyms for the tsunami, deluge or overload of information.
“The world as we know it today is rich in information. At whim, we can usually find (without much delay) an information source that answers a question, suggests nearby restaurants, tells us how to travel, or provides us with data for the paper we are writing. The internet, as well as the technological innovations that allow us to easily and enjoyably access it, has given rise to a new era where knowledge is plentiful and interpretation is vital.”
Dash Neimark a.k.a. /uxdash | @ux_Dash ~ Boxes and Arrows ★
Digital humanities is picking up information architecture concepts.
“Shakespeare’s plays are organized in the First Folio into three now familiar genre categories: Comedies, Tragedies, and Histories. Later scholars added a fourth, describing certain late plays like The Tempest and The Winter’s Tale that contain elements of both comedy and tragedy, along with fantastical features like magic, as ‘romance plays’. In organizing the 403 plays that make up the Folger’s Digital Anthology of Early Modern English Drama, we needed a few more than those four categories. By grouping our plays by genre, we aim to classify our dramatic material in ways that make it easy for scholars and readers to compare plays that were generally alike—comparing tragedy to tragedy, so to speak, using as few broadly applicable genres as possible.”
Meaghan J. Brown a.k.a. @EpistolaryBrown ~ Folger Shakespeare Library ★
A vintage deliverable from the 00’s: the sitemap.
“If you ask what an information architect does, you’ll hear of navigation. Ask what an information architecture is, you’ll hear of taxonomies. If you ask how IAs communicate navigation and taxonomies, you’ll hear of sitemaps.”
Austin Govella a.k.a. /austingovella | @austingovella ★
Content, the UX material we work with. And code of course.
“The most common mistake by organizations designing a website, app, or other digital product is breaking the number one rule of human-centered design: put content where users are most likely to look for it. Instead, mission-driven organizations, in particular, such as government agencies and nonprofits, muddle the execution of their design as they struggle to promote their message and meet the needs of stakeholders.”
Nikki Kerber a.k.a. /nrkerber | @SocialWebNerd and Rachel Weatherly a.k.a. /rdweatherly ~ UXPA Magazine ★
Architecting information as an architect.
“The design process consists in defining hypotheses of what the balance between these forces ought to be, and articulating them to two main audiences: stakeholders — the people who are commissioning the product and/or those who will be using it — and its builders. This articulation happens by means of models, which the designer creates to communicate the intended balance to these audiences. These models can take many forms: sketches, comps, prototypes, etc. Feedback from stakeholders and developers helps designers refine these models as the project progresses, and the models evolve from being abstract and ambiguous (rough sketches) to concrete (screen comps, prototypes).”
Jorge Arango a.k.a. /jarango | @jarango ★
Language is infrastructure for sense-making and place-making. Language is a medium for making. And, as RSW once said: “Language generates structure.”
“Twenty-five years into designing and developing for the web and we still collectively suck at information architecture. We are taught to be innovative, creative, agile, and iterative, but where and when are we taught how to make complex things clear? In my opinion, the most important thing we can do to make the world a clearer place is teach people how to think critically about structure and language.”
Abby Covert a.k.a. /abbytheia | @Abby_the_IA ~ A List Apart ★
Libraries and UX, a perfect match for information architects.
“User Experience (UX) is gaining momentum as a critical
success factor across all industries and sectors, including libraries. While usability studies of library websites and related digital interfaces are commonplace, UX is becoming an increasingly popular topic of discussion in the
community and is emerging as a new specialization for library professionals. To better understand this phenomenon, this paper reports the results of a qualitative study involving interviews with 16 librarians who have ‘User Experience’ in their official job titles. The results show that UX Librarians share a user-centered mindset and many common responsibilities, including user research, usability testing, and space/service assessments, but each individual UX Librarian is also somewhat unique in how they approach and describe their work. As a whole, the research sheds light on an emerging library specialization and provides a valuable snapshot of the current state of UX Librarianship.”
Craig M. MacDonald a.k.a. @CraigMMacDonald ~ Proceedings of the 78th ASIS&T Annual Meeting, vol. 51
But how complete can it be?
“Information architecture is a task often shared by designers, developers, and content strategists. But regardless of who takes on the task, IA is a field of its own, with influences, tools, and resources that are worth investigation. In this article we’ll discuss what information architecture really is, and why it’s a valuable aspect of the user experience process.”
UX Booth ★
Metadata is the most important data. Even more important than big data.
“More meaningful than font, placement and format of printed documents, metadata in the digital world delivers opportunity that was unknown in the 1990s. Shifting from the print world to the internet, Creekmore learned the potential value of metadata. But effective use requires clarifying goals, applying metadata strategically and purposefully, and standardizing metadata practices to manage document classification. Common pitfalls among those who appreciate what metadata can offer are designing content management systems with too many or too few metadata options. To avoid excessive or insufficient metadata, information architects must fully understand users’ needs, differentiating daily requirements from occasional ones. Building a simple metadata schema for current use is ideal; focusing on unlimited future possibilities or building an elaborate but unwieldy system is unrealistic.”
Laura Creekmore a.k.a. /lauracreekmore | @LauraCreekmore ~ ASIS&T Bulletin Oct/Nov 2015 ★
I always love some deep thinking on information architecture. It’s not that often I encounter it.
“IA is more than wireframes. But we’re confined by the mindset that thinks IA is a box to check off on a project plan. If you find this a problem, you’ll want a way to change the discourse. A language of critique is going to help you become a better, more influential UX professional. We can all use that.”
Stacy Surla a.k.a. /stacysurla | @stacysurla ~ Fritillaria ★
Finding something unexpected and very relevant is a moment of wow!
“Serendipitous or accidental discovery of information has often been neglected in information behaviour models, which tend to focus on information seeking, a more goal-directed behaviour. (…) By including serendipity in information behaviour models, the frameworks arrived at should help further research in this area. A working definition of serendipity in information behaviour is a starting point for other researchers to investigate related questions in the area.”
Naresh Kumar Agarwal ~ Information Research Vol. 20.3 ★