Information as thing

“Three meanings of ‘information’ are distinguished: ‘Information-as-process’; ‘information-as-knowledge’; and ‘information-as-thing’, the attributive use of ‘information’ to denote things regarded as informative. The nature and characteristics of ‘information-as-thing’ are discussed, using an indirect approach (‘What things are informative?’). Varieties of ‘information-as-thing’ include data, text, documents, objects, and events. On this view ‘information’ includes but extends beyond communication. Whatever information storage and retrieval systems store and retrieve is necessarily ‘information-as-thing’.” (Michael K. Buckland)

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